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Pakistan is the South Asian Country, got independence from British-India on 14th August 1947 and shares an eastern border with India and a northern-eastern border with China. Iran makes up the country southwest border, and Afghanistan runs along its western and northern edge. The Arabian Sea is Pakistan southern boundary with 1,064 km of coastline. The country has a total area of 796,100 sq. km. From Gwadar Bay in its southeastern corner, the country extends more than 1,800 km to the Khunjerab Pass on Chinase’s border.

Nature has blessed Pakistan with mountains, rivers, steppes and deserts. Most of the land is barren mountains and arid plateaus whereas the Himalayan, Hindu-kush and Karakorum Ranges occupy the Northern part. Among the biggest rivers are the Indus (2,896 km long) and Sutlej (1,551 km long).

Nature has also bestowed Pakistan with unlimited wealth. There are lots of minerals, fuel and energy resources like Oil, Coal and Natural Gas have been discovered. The mineral wealth of the Pakistan occurs essentially in the Himalayas, Karakorum, Hindu-Kush areas and main minerals include aquamarine, emerald, ruby, garnet, topaz, tourmaline and period. There are many other minerals from more than 100 localities including spinel groups, epidote, quartz, beryl. The minerals are directly related to the Geodynamic evolution of the greater Himalayan orogen. The closure of the Tethys led to welding of Karakoram plate to Kohistan magmatic arc along the Shyok suture during the Late Cretaceous, and Indian plate to the Karakoram Kohistan assembly during Paleocene-Early Eocene. These events were preceded, accompanied and followed by extensive magmatic and metamorphism that caused the genesis of the gemstones The mountains in the north of Pakistan are rich with the variety of minerals including aquamarine, tourmaline, ruby, red and blue spinels, sapphire, topaz, garnet, peridot, emerald, pargasite, diopside, epidot, agate, quartz, rutile, zircon, florite, apatite, moonstone, amethyst, sphene, actinolite, rodingite, vesuvianite, axinite etc. Most of the gemstones are find in the pegmatite-related, such as aquamarine, topaz, garnet, apatite and tourmaline and some of the gemstones are hydrothermal or metamorphic in genesis such as emerald, ruby, sapphire, pargasite etc. These pegmatites are normally composed of albite and microcline, quartz, biotite, muscovite and tourmaline.

Pakistan has gained a prominent position in the international market for supplying a wide variety of gemstones and mineral specimens. The Gilgit-Baltistan of Pakistan is enriched with the variety of mineral treasures that include peridot, emerald, aquamarine, tourmaline, topaz, ruby, sapphire, garnet, red spinal, pargasite, actinolite, diopside, epidote, vesuvianite, axinite, rodingite, sphene, fluorite, apatite, zircon, rutile, azurite, moonstone, amethyst, rose quartz and agate.

Northern Areas of Pakistan, now called Gilgit-Baltistan is composed of three lofty, snow-covered mountain ranges: Himalaya, Hindu Kush and Karakoram. These geomorphic features reflect the geological setting which, in many respects, is unique in the world. These ranges were formed as result of two collisions between India and Asia that occurred between 100 and 50 Ma (million years) ago. These collisions have induced crustal thickening in these mountains, which has resulted in metamorphism and multiple phases of deformation in these rocks. This was followed by the emplacement of leucogranites and associated pegmatites. Theses geological processes have produced a distinctive mineral kingdom within Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan.

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